- the Dante-pilgrim/Virgilio relationship deepens, leading to Virgilio’s communication of new aspects of his past
- Dante-poet manipulates language and dialogue to reveal affect, subjectivity, and intimacy
- Dante-poet opens up a space of interiority in his characters — the “dentro” (“inside”) of verse 3 — not common in medieval poetry
- Inferno 9 unpacks the dialectic of verse 8, between the doubt expressed by the conditional “se non” and the belief expressed by “Tal ne s’offerse” (Inf. 9.8): the first part of the canto (up to Medusa) explores the fear of what could happen; the latter part of the canto describes what does happen
- a meta-canto, like Inferno 2, featuring language itself: “parole maladette” (Inf. 8.95) → “parola tronca” (Inf. 9. 14) → “parole sante” (Inf. 9.105)
- Dante-pilgrim for the first time shows a lack of confidence in his guide, and Dante-poet gives us new and troubling information about the past of his character Virgilio, who now tells of having been “conjured” to lowest Hell by the Thessalian sorceress Erichtho
- the creation of a pre-history is a key technique in creating a virtual reality: Dante creates a “real” past for his characters, a past that precedes the diegesis of the poem
- similarly, in Inferno 10, when the pilgrim commissions Farinata to give a message to Cavalcante de’ Cavalcanti, the narrator has created a “future” for his characters, a narrative time that is successive to the diegesis of the poem
- as Virgilio once believed in the power of Erichtho, so now he believes in the power of Medusa
- Medusa is a “real counter-factual”: an alternate reality that is made real by believing in it
 We pick up a story-line that began in Inferno 8, which narrates the attempt of Dante and Virgilio to gain entrance to the city of Dis. As we saw, this story is literally suspended at canto’s end: Inferno 8 ends in medias res, while Dante and Virgilio are still blocked from entrance to the city guarded by devils.
 With the shared story-line, there is a shared lexicon. A key little word that carries over from the last part of Inferno 8 to the opening of Inferno 9 is the indefinite pronoun “tal” (“such a one”, a shortened form of tale), which is used by Virgilio to refer to the unknown being who will come to their assistance. The pronoun is first used in Inferno 8.105 by Virgilio. In order to reassure his disciple, Virgilio refers to the transcendent force that legitimizes their journey, saying categorically that their journey cannot be hindered because of its origin: “Non temer; ché ’l nostro passo / non ci può tòrre alcun: da tal n’è dato” (Do not fear, no one can hinder our passage; One so great has granted it [Inf. 8.104-5]). Virgilio will use the pronoun “tal” again at the end of Inferno 8, now referring to the specific emissary that is already speeding through Hell to Dante’s aid: “tal che per lui ne fia la terra aperta” (the one who will open this realm for us [Inf. 8.130]).
 As we shall see, Virgilio will use the same pronoun “tal” a third time, as he fends off uncertainty at the beginning of Inferno 9, thus providing an immediate lexical link back to the end of Inferno 8.
 Inferno 9 picks up the story, emphasizing the doubt and concern that Virgilio is feeling, despite his reassuring words. The scene that follows focuses on the deepening intimacy and psychological connectedness of the two travelers. I can think of no other contemporary text that manipulates dialogue and direct discourse with such sophistication, with the goal of creating intimacy, affect, and dramatic tension. (Of course, Auerbach says much the same about the next canto, Inferno 10, in his classic essay in Mimesis.)
 Dante uses language and its interruption to depict interiority in a scene where two people are somewhat at cross purposes (one of them tries and fails to reassure the other), but at the same time are deeply protective of each other’s feelings. If we think back, we realize that a certain carefulness in speech has been a feature of Dante-pilgrim’s relationship to his guide: for instance, his question to Virgilio in Inferno 4 (has anyone ever exited this place for heaven, either through his own merit or someone else’s?) is labeled by the narrator “parlar coverto” (covert speech) in Inferno 4.51. By pointing to Dante-pilgrim’s indirect language, the narrator suggests the difficulty of broaching the topic of escape from Limbo to one of its eternal prisoners.
 Virgilio’s existential status will come to the fore again in this canto, whose opening gambit is worth parsing in some detail. The scene at the beginning of Inferno 9 is an example of Dante’s ability to deploy subtle linguistic cues and narrative resources in order to create dramatic art and the sense of intimate and authentic feeling.
 Inferno 9 begins with the apparently simple information that Dante and Virgilio are both distressed, albeit in somewhat different ways. But, already in the first tercet of Inferno 9, the information relayed is far from simple. Dante is afraid because he has deduced that the devils’ obstinate intransigence has discomfited Virgilio, causing his guide a loss in confidence and an increase in anger. Both emotions were noted in Inferno 8, where Virgilio comes back from his parley with the devils notably demoralized: “Li occhi a la terra e le ciglia avea rase / d’ogne baldanza” (his eyes turned to the ground, and his brows deprived of every confidence [Inf. 8.118-9]). Virgilio then instructs Dante not to become fearful on account of Virgilio’s having grown angry, since he will ultimately win this contest: “Tu, perch’ io m’adiri, / non sbigottir, ch’io vincerò la prova” (You — though I am vexed — must not be daunted; I shall win this contest [Inf. 8.121-2]).
 Though instructed not to become fearful, Dante-pilgrim cannot re-press the fear that he feels within. In the first verse of Inferno 9 Dante’s fear ex-presses itself, causing him to turn pale. He becomes pale as a result of “seeing my guide turned back”: “veggendo il duca mio tornare in volta” (Inf. 9.2). Dante’s pallor is defined as the color that externally denotes internal fear; literally, the pilgrim is suffused by “the color that fear pushed out of him”: “Quel color che viltà di fuor mi pinse” (Inf. 9.1). In other words, the pilgrim’s “viltà” of Inferno 9.1 — the same “viltà” that afflicts Dante at the outset of the journey, in Inferno 2.45 — reveals itself in the external pallor of his face.
 The pilgrim’s pallor is an external cue — one that appears on the “outside” (“di fuor”) — that in turn causes Virgilio to repress his own emotions, keeping them “inside” (“dentro”). Virgilio holds “inside” his own “new color”, caused by his emotions at being thwarted by the devils at the gate of Dis: “più tosto dentro il suo novo ristrinse” (made him more quickly restrain his own new color [Inf. 9.3]). Chiavacci Leonardi suggests that Virgilio’s “new color” is the red blush of anger.
 Dante-poet here represents these two characters interacting on a very intuitive and psychologically intense level, in an interaction whose subtlety he now intensifies by adding a discursive component to the drama of changed aspects and external physical expressions of internal emotions.
 Having stipulated a psychological chain reaction of emotion generating emotion in verses 1-3, in the second tercet of Inferno 9 the narrator represents Virgilio as standing alert, listening for some sign that help is on its way. Then Virgilio begins to speak, in effect thinking out loud: he is now literally ex-pressing his inner thoughts, first articulating doubt and then cutting himself off. The emotion that he re-pressed previously by not allowing it to show on his face, he now begins to express. However, he immediately interrupts himself, controlling his verbal expression as before he controlled his facial expression — again because he doesn’t want to alarm Dante.
 But, in a further chain reaction, the pilgrim infers from his guide’s self-interruption that his guide is in fact worried and concerned. And therefore the self-interruption that Virgilio undertakes in order to not alarm Dante has the opposite effect.
 In these dense first tercets of Inferno 9 Dante-narrator informs us about the respective changes of Virgilio’s and Dante’s faces in order to open up a space of subjectivity, signaled by the contrasting “di fuor” (“outside”) and “dentro” (“inside”) in verses 1 and 3. The space of interiority is carved out by the interchange between the pilgrim’s fear which pushes its way out of him and Virgilio’s concern which he bottles up within. Subsequently, in the next tercet, this inside space — the space of interiority and subjectivity that the poet is working to uncover — is reflected discursively: in Virgilio’s articulation of his thoughts and especially in the unfinished clause of verse 8.
 The third tercet of Inferno 9 relates what Virgilio has been thinking and puts his thoughts into words, including his interrupted speech:
“Pur a noi converrà vincer la punga”, cominciò el, “se non ... Tal ne s’offerse. Oh quanto tarda a me ch’altri qui giunga!”. (Inf. 9.7-9)
“We have to win this battle,” he began, “if not... But one so great had offered help. How slow that someone's coming to see me!”
 In the above verses Virgilio allows himself to express doubt, first through the adversative adverb eppure (which has the sense of “nonetheless”), with which he asserts that after all he and his comrade must win this fight: “Pur a noi converrà vincer la punga” (Surely we must be the ones to win this fight [Inf. 9.7]). After this opening sally, which already contains the seed of insecurity, Virgilio’s insecurity blooms, coming to the fore in the two little interrupted words “se non . . . ” (“if not . . . ”). Here Virgilio, still thinking out loud to himself, begins to articulate the possibility of a negative outcome to their enterprise. The interrupted words “se non” are the beginning of a formulation of what it would mean if help were not forthcoming.
 Virgilio at this point interrupts himself without completing the thought. The interruption itself is then thematized, for the narrator will subsequently refer to it with the tag “parola tronca”, literally a “cut off word” (Inf. 9.14). This ruptured fragment of speech is speech whose very rupturing is part of the story. The doubt of the unfinished “se non” is then countered by another little word. Inherited from Inferno 8, the word “tal” (“such a one”) has been already coded as optimistic and affirmative: “Tal ne s’offerse” (Such a one offered help [Inf. 9.8]).
 This extraordinary sequence in which inner thoughts are expressed as words not intended for others to hear concludes with a final voicing of concern, as Virgilio exclaims to himself: “Oh quanto tarda a me ch’altri qui giunga!” (How slow to me is someone’s coming! [Inf. 9.9]). As Chiavacci Leonardi rightly claims in her commentary: “Questo breve monologo, scandito in quattro tempi di alterno sentire, è un capolavoro del ‘parlato’ della Commedia” (This brief monologue, articulated as four sets of alternating feelings, is a masterpiece of the Commedia’s art of ‘speaking’ [Commentary, Inferno IX, p. 227]).
 Virgilio’s spoken thoughts in verses 7-9 proleptically outline the plot of Inferno 9 as a whole. Specifically, the plot of this canto can be extrapolated from the two statements of verse 8. Inferno 9 as a canto unpacks the dialectic of verse 8: the first half of the canto elaborates the conditionality and doubt of “se non”, while the second half of the canto elaborates the affirmative belief of “Tal ne s’offerse” (Inf. 9.8). Inferno 9 thus juxtaposes a scenario that is the equivalent of a conditional sentence to a scenario that is the equivalent of a declarative sentence.
 The plot of Inferno 9 can be outlined as two contrasting scenarios:
- The events of Inferno 9 up to and including the appearance of Medusa and Virgilio’s response to Medusa are the unfolding of the “se non” scenario: this is the negative scenario of what could happen. This scenario is based on the fear that does not ultimately materialize, the fear that remains as “tronca” or unfulfilled as Virgilio’s expression of that fear in what the narrator calls his “parola tronca” (cut off word [Inf. 9.14]);
- The arrival of the angel who opens the gate of Dis is the fulfillment of “Tal ne s’offerse”: this is the positive scenario of what does happen.
 One of the remarkable features of the opening sequence of Inferno 9 is the narrator’s participation in glossing the various linguistic events on which the psychological drama is built. Virgilio’s ruptured syntax itself becomes a signifier to be analyzed. It is labeled “la parola tronca” and the narrator spells out in verses 14-15 the effect of Virgilio’s interrupted speech on himself, explaining that he may well have inferred more negative content from Virgilio’s parola tronca than was warranted: “perch’ io traeva la parola tronca / forse a peggior sentenzia che non tenne” (because I drew out from his broken phrase / a meaning worse — perhaps — than he’d intended [Inf. 9.14-15]).
 Virgilio is so committed to maintaining equilibrium in front of his disciple that he engages in a literal “cover-up” of his own speech. Virgilio “covers up” (“ricoperse”) what he had started to say with what he says afterward: “I’ vidi ben sì com’ ei ricoperse / lo cominciar con l’altro che poi venne” (But I saw well enough how he had covered / his first words with the words that followed after [Inf. 9.10-11]). These discursive maneuvers alarm the pilgrim and are analyzed by the narrator, who in verse 11 details the components of Virgilio’s previous discourse: there was a “beginning” (“cominciar”: this corresponds to “se non” in verse 8) that was then covered “with the other part that came after” (“l’altro che poi venne”: this corresponds to “Tal se n’offerse” in verse 8).
 Here Dante shows his investment in understanding the inner workings of human speech, to the point of considering when speech becomes a speech act. In this passage, full of meta-categories, Dante is, perhaps, functioning as a philosopher of language:
I’ vidi ben sì com’ei ricoperse lo cominciar con l’altro che poi venne, che fur parole a le prime diverse; ma nondimen paura il suo dir dienne, perch’io traeva la parola tronca forse a peggior sentenzia che non tenne. (Inf. 9.10-15)
But I saw well enough how he had covered his first words with the words that followed after— so different from what he had said before; nevertheless, his speech made me afraid, because I drew out from his broken phrase a meaning worse—perhaps—than he’d intended.
 The result of the pilgrim’s scrutiny of Virgilio’s speech is to become more nervous. The pilgrim now shows, for the first time, a lack of confidence in his guide. The pilgrim’s lack of confidence is dramatized through the medium of yet more speech: he poses a question intended to ascertain whether Virgilio is indeed qualified to be his guide through Hell. In order not to pose his question too bluntly (in other words, in order not to ask his discourteous question too discourteously), Dante broadens his inquiry. He asks Virgilio not whether he himself has ever made the journey to lower Hell before, but whether anyone from Limbo has ever successfully before made this journey:
In questo fondo de la trista conca discende mai alcun del primo grado, che sol per pena ha la speranza cionca? (Inf. 9.16-18)
Does anyone from the first circle, the one whose only punishment is crippled hope, ever descend so deep in this sad hollow?
 The question as to whether anyone from Limbo has ever journeyed to lower Hell recalls a similar question in Inferno 4, as to whether any souls had ever been able to leave Limbo for Paradise: “uscicci mai alcuno, o per suo merto / o per altrui, che poi fosse beato?” (did any ever go — by his own merit / or others’ — from this place toward blessedness? [Inf. 4.49-50]). Both questions remind us of Virgilio’s precarious status as a resident of Limbo. Now Dante-pilgrim’s query allows Dante-poet to add to Virgilio’s pre-history.
 We see here the narrator’s brilliance in constructing a virtual reality, one in which we participate the more readily because he creates a “real” past for his invented characters: a past that precedes the diegesis of the poem.
 Similarly, in Inferno 10, when the pilgrim commissions Farinata degli Uberti to give a message to Cavalcante de’ Cavalcanti, the narrator creates a “future” for his fictitious characters (they are fictitious as deployed in the diegesis of the Commedia, for all that they existed historically): a narrative time that is successive to the diegesis of the poem.
 To reconstruct Virgilio’s past we begin with Inferno 2. We recall that much of Inferno 2 consists of a narrative flashback: the events recounted in canto 2 are situated prior to Dante’s meeting Virgilio in Inferno 1. While Dante was lost in the dark wood, Beatrice went to Limbo to beg the Roman poet to go to the assistance of his Florentine disciple. The past related in Inferno 2 is centered on Beatrice, the heavenly being who enlisted Virgilio’s aid. The past related in Inferno 9 now gives us an altogether different context, centered on a diabolic rather than a heavenly being. Dante-narrator now connects Virgilio to black magic and to the nefarious practices of the sorceress Erichtho, whose dark arts are related by the Latin poet Lucan in his epic poem Pharsalia (De Bello Civili).
 Why does Dante choose to give his beloved guide the dark and menacing back-story that he gives him here? The answer to this question will unfold as an integral part of the Commedia’s Virgilio-narrative, a story-line in which Dante undercuts Virgilio’s authority while at the same time affirming his love for him. Let us note too a general truth, which bears upon Dante’s narrative art and his cultivation of verisimilitude: the addition of conflict and ambivalence to a character’s history brings to life the complexity of that character. For we are all products of histories that include actions that are at times hard to reconcile in one neat package.
 In Inferno 9, Virgilio will answer the pilgrim’s discourteous question by giving him information intended to comfort him: indeed, he says to his charge, I have been down here once before. He further explains that he made the trip from the first circle to lower Hell because he was compelled by the sorceress Erichtho: “congiurato da quella Eritón cruda / che richiamava l’ombre a’ corpi sui (compelled by that savage witch Erichtho, / she who called the shades back to their bodies [Inf. 9.23-4]). We note here the suggestion of coercion, of lack of free will. For the connection of determinism to the magical and divinatory arts, see the Introduction to Inferno 20.
 We note too that Erichtho’s power, in Virgilio’s telling, is demiurgic. She can reconnect shades to their bodies: “che richiamava l’ombre a’ corpi sui” (Inf. 9.24). Is it possible for a classical witch to have powers that are akin to a perverse Resurrection? For discussion of this perverse Resurrection of the body, see the Introduction to Inferno 13, par. 17.2. Erichtho’s practice also anticipates Dante’s invention, in Inferno 33, of animate “undead” death (“zombies”).
 Noteworthy in the above description is Virgilio’s passivity, his susceptibility to compulsion. He ascribes to Erichtho vast and unlimited power, as later in this canto he will ascribe the same power to Medusa. Although intended to comfort, there is in fact nothing reassuring in the information that Virgilio gives us about himself in this passage. In Dante’s Poets I wrote of the “long shadow” that Dante casts over Virgilio by establishing this connection between him and Erichtho:
Thus, under the pretext of allaying the pilgrim’s fears, Dante raises far greater fears regarding his guide; the astonishing invention here related, whereby the Thessalian witch from Lucan’s poem once deployed Vergil for one of her nefarious missions, casts a long and intentional shadow over the Roman poet. (Dante’s Poets, p. 205)
 Virgilio further tells Dante that Erichtho sent him “to draw a spirit back from Judas’ circle”: “per trarne un spirto del cerchio di Giuda” (Inf. 9.27). The reference to the “cerchio di Giuda”, like the reference to “Caina” in Inferno 5.107, suggests that Dante had prepared some kind of outline of Hell that included place names, and that this outline was at least tentatively in place while he was composing the poem.
 Inferno 9 features much classical culture, including many of its darker elements: not only the early stage-setting reference to Erichtho, but then the sighting of the Furies (“le feroci Erine” of Inf. 9.45: the savage Erinyes) and most of all the figure of Medusa, who turns men to stone, depriving them of motion, hope, life itself. Note all the classical names: “Megera”, “Aletto”, “Tesifone”, “Medusa”, “Teseo”, “Gorgòn”, and then, later in the canto, “Stige” and “Cerbero”.
 The Furies claim, as did the devils of Inferno 8, that there is no way forward. If Dante persists, they say, he will be not merely sent back alone as the devils had threatened — “Sol si ritorni per la folle strada” (Let him return alone on his mad road [Inf. 8.91]) — but Medusa will come and turn him into stone: “Vegna Medusa: sì ’l farem di smalto” (Let Medusa come; we shall turn him into stone [Inf. 9.52]).
 In other words, this is a test of belief. If Dante fails to believe in the power that sent him on this voyage, he will be petrified, paralyzed with fear and despair. There is also the question of what one believes in: Virgilio believed in the power of Erichtho, and now he believes in the power of Medusa.
 The Furies’ threats are baseless, impotent. We should not be tempted to believe them. By the same token, we should not be tempted to believe in Medusa. In Inferno 2 Beatrice told Virgilio about Hell’s inability to harm her: “Temer si dee di sole quelle cose / c’hanno potenza di fare altrui male; / de l’altre no, ché non son paurose” (One ought to be afraid of only those / things possessed of power to do us harm; / of others not, there is no cause for fear [Inf. 2.88-90]). Consequently, we should never feel fear or suspense with respect to the ability of any creature in Hell to harm the pilgrim, who was sent on this journey by divine Providence. The “living textuality” of the Commedia is such that the text works to make us feel fear or suspense, even though technically we should know that these feelings are without merit. This is an extraordinary testament to Dante’s magisterial craft: he can write a story whose plot is completely over-determined and yet still find ways to generate suspense.
 In the latter half of Inferno 9 a messenger from heaven arrives, described with a masculine pronoun (“elli” in verse 85, as already “lui” in Inferno 8.130) and a masculine past participle: “da ciel messo” (sent from heaven [Inf. 9.85]). The celestial messenger is an angel. He has not “rained down from heaven”, as did the angels who were cast out with Lucifer and became the devils we meet in Inferno 8: “da ciel piovuti” (rained down from heaven [Inf. 8.83]). The angel of Inferno 9 is not “da ciel piovuto” (Inf. 8.83), but “da ciel messo” (Inf. 9.85). He was not cast out, he was sent down. The intentionality of “messo” reminds us of the super-structure that guides Dante’s mission, as described in Inferno 2.
 The heavenly messenger is dismissive and disdainful of the devils and the inhabitants of Hell, who in their thousands disperse in front of him like frogs in front of an enemy serpent. The inversion whereby a force of good is here figured as a serpent, an animal traditionally associated with the devil, is typical of Dante’s Inferno, and belongs to a program of inversions that culminates in the association of Dante himself with a devil — “diavolo” — when he pulls Bocca degli Abati’s hair in Inferno 32.108.
 The cleavage between the fear-based scenario and the faith-based scenario is absolute: the angel sent from heaven taps the gate of Dis with his diminutive wand — “verghetta” in Inf. 9.89 — and opens it with the greatest ease. For this task, he does not need a verga; a verghetta is sufficient. And in his opening words to the infernal denizens the heavenly messenger does not stop at “rained from heaven” as in Inferno 8.83, but reminds them that they were cast out, literally “hunted out of heaven” : “O cacciati del ciel” (Inf. 9.91).
 This scene is based on the ancient story of Christ’s Harrowing of Hell after the Crucifixion, a tale already referred to by Virgilio in Inferno 4 and conjured again in Inferno 8. The result of the messo’s arrival is that Dante and Virgilio are able to enter the gates of Dis, “sicuri appresso le parole sante” (safely, behind his holy words [Inf. 9.105]). From Virgilio’s “cutoff word” — “parola tronca” (Inf. 9.14) — we have moved over the span of Inferno 9 to the heavenly messenger’s “holy words”: “parole sante” (Inf. 9.105).
 If we consider the parole — the words and the language — that have been deployed over the course of this episode, beginning in Inferno 8, and whose deployment is in many ways the thematic focus of this episode, we can construct the following trajectory:
“parole maladette” (Inf. 8.95) → “parola tronca” (Inf. 9. 14) → “parole sante” (Inf. 9.105)
 There is a gendered component to this canto: pagan evil tends to be gendered female (though there are exceptions, like “Cerbero vostro”), starting with Erichtho and culminating in Medusa and the Furies, who “membra feminine avieno e atto” (had the limbs of women and their ways [Inf. 9.39]). In contrast, Christian good — notably, the being that is “da ciel messo” — is gendered male. That said, there are also overlaps: Medusa’s hair is made of various kinds of snakes in verses 40-41, and, as discussed, the angel is analogous to a biscia in verse 77.
 We can interpret Dante’s Medusa as the paralysis that overcomes us when we cease to believe. Believe in what? Believe in the right power: the power that can sustain us through all difficulties and past all obstacles. Medusa is what happens when in fear we succumb to belief in the wrong power. She is the fulfillment of the devils’ taunt in Inferno 8 that the pilgrim is doomed to fail. She is our imagined failure made real. In Medusa, Dante creates a “real counter-factual”: an alternate reality that is made real by believing in it. In this alternate reality the way forward was never granted, and the events of Inferno 2 never occurred.
 Virgilio’s failure in Inferno 9 is his failure to believe, or rather his failure to suspend belief in the wrong power. He erroneously affirms that Medusa has the power to stop Dante in his tracks: “se ’l Gorgòn si mostra e tu ’l vedessi, / nulla sarebbe di tornar mai suso” (should the Gorgon show herself and you behold her, / never again would you return above [Inf. 9.56-57]). Virgilio now passively accepts Medusa’s power to impede the pilgrim’s mission as once he had accepted Erichtho’s power to compel him on a mission to “the circle of Judas” (Inf. 9.27).
 Of course, Virgilio also — fortunately for Dante — accepted the mission entrusted to him by Beatrice in Inferno 2. As I write in Dante’s Poets, the key to Virgilio “seems to be his passivity: he can function in malo, working for Erichtho, or in bono, working for Beatrice” (p. 221).
 Inferno 9 constitutes a first exploration of Virgilio’s limitations, and by extension an indictment of classical culture. When the angel rebukes the inhabitants of Dis for blocking the pilgrim’s path, reminding them of their impotence in the face of heaven’s dictates, he identifies them with Cerberus, who still bears the marks of his futile attempt to withstand Hercules: “Cerbero vostro, se ben vi ricorda, / ne porta ancor pelato il mento e ’l gozzo” (Your Cerberus, if you remember well, / for that, had both his throat and chin stripped clean [Inf. 9.98-99]). Hercules, like Theseus (whose “assault” is invoked by the Furies with rage in verse 54), are classical figures whose plundering of Hades was appropriated by Christian exegetes. They interpreted the two mythological heroes as figurae Christi: classical forerunners of Christ, early harrowers of Hell whose actions symbolize infernal defeat.
 Dante’s address to those who have “intelletti sani” in Inferno 9.61-63 recalls his prior use of the expression in the canzone Le dolci rime:
Per ch’a ’ntelletti sani è manifesto i lor diri esser vani, ed io così per falsi li ripruovo (Le dolci rime, 74-76)
Thus it is clear to every mind that's sound that what they say lacks sense, and hence I claim their words are false (Lansing trans.)
 In Le dolci rime the motif of “intelletti sani” comes precisely at the junction of the canzone where Dante moves from Christian revelation to Aristotelian exposition. In Inferno 9 the motif is used at a similar suturing point: this time, however, he is moving from pagan false reality to Christian truth.
 Inferno 9 marks a low point for classical culture in the Commedia, and the pall over antiquity continues through to the canto’s end. When the travelers move through the gate opened by the angel into the city of Dis, they find themselves in a huge cemetery, a veritable city of death. This city is compared, in the canto’s final association of classical culture with death and impotence, to the Roman necropolises of Arles in Provence and of Pola in Istria.