Tirannia

  • the ruine are caused by Christ’s Harrowing of Hell and function as Christological signposts scattered through the infernal landscape
  • a new installment in the Virgilio narrative
  • more information on the virtual bodies of the souls
  • the concept of tirannia: in reference not only to tyrants of antiquity but as part of an ongoing political analysis of forms of governance on the Italian peninsula (see Inferno 27 and Monarchia)

Inferno 12 begins with a difficult climb down a steep and mountainous rockface, which became passable, albeit tortuous, as the result of an alpine landslide. On the edge of the cliff there is a monster from classical mythology which guards the way down to the seventh circle: the Minotaur, “l’infamia di Creti” (infamy of Crete) of Inferno 12.12. As with the previous classical guardians of Hell, Virgilio manages Dante’s safe passage, in this case by infuriating the Minotaur and taking advantage of its irate distraction to make a run for the pass.

The first section of Inferno 12, through verse 45, is an important installment in the ongoing story of Virgilio and his ability to negotiate Hell: we see both Virgilio’s limitations vis-à-vis Christianity, and his correct intuitions. Here Virgilio, who recently failed to guide Dante through the gates of Dis, guarded by Christian devils, once more shows himself adept at handling classical monsters and guides Dante safely past the Minotaur.

Perhaps having learned from the experience of watching the angel open the gate of Dis, Virgilio taunts the Minotaur by reminding him of Theseus (“the duke of Athens” of verse 117), the Greek hero who was able to defeat the Minotaur on Crete: “Forse / tu credi che qui sia ’l duca d’Atene, / che sù nel mondo la morte ti porse?” (Perhaps / you think this is the Duke of Athens here, / who, in the world above, brought you your death [Inf. 12.16-18]). Similarly, in Inferno 9, the Furies are still haunted by the “assault” of Theseus on Hades (Inf. 9.54), and the angel taunts the infernal throng with the memory of Hercules, who once defeated Cerberus (Inf. 9.97-99).

Theseus and Hercules are classical forerunners of Christ, early harrowers of Hell whose actions symbolize infernal defeat. By invoking Theseus in Inferno 12, Virgilio shows how well he has learned the lesson of the celestial agent who arrived in Inferno 9.

There are echoes in Inferno 12 of the previous episode with the devils. The discussion of the causes of “questa ruina” in Inferno 12.32 (“ruina” is Dante’s word for the landslide that they are climbing down) induces Virgilio to reminisce about the first time he made this trip through Hell. At that time, he says, the boulders that they are picking their way through had not yet fallen:

Or vo’ che sappi che l’altra fïata
ch’i’ discesi qua giù nel basso inferno,
questa roccia non era ancor cascata.     (Inf. 12.34-36)

Now I would have you know: the other time
that I descended into lower Hell,
this mass of boulders had not yet collapsed.  

Any reference to Virgilio’s first trip to Hell serves to problematize our beloved guide, since it reminds us that he once undertook this same journey under the aegis of a very different power from Beatrice: as we recall from the description of Virgilio’s prior trip in Inferno 9, he was called the first time by that mistress of the dark arts, the witch Erichtho. Yet, despite this troubling set of associations, in Inferno 12 Virgilio goes on to show impressive powers to intuit Christian verities.

Virgilio correctly intuits what has happened in the time elapsed between his first journey to lower Hell and his current undertaking. First, he temporally situates the earthquake that caused the rockslide, connecting it to the moment when Christ entered Hell and liberated the Biblical righteous: the earth shook immediately before the arrival of “colui che la gran preda / levò a Dite del cerchio superno” (the One who took / from Dis the highest circle’s splendid spoils [Inf. 12.38-39]). In other words, the earth quaked before the arrival in Hell of Christ.

The periphrasis that Virgilio uses for Christ, calling Him the One who robbed Lucifer of his prey, by taking the Biblical righteous out of “the highest circle” of Hell (“the One who took / from Dis the highest circle’s splendid spoils” (Inf. 12.38-39), is extremely telling. Christ’s arrival in Limbo and His liberation of some of the souls from that circle is a fixed reference point for Virgilio, which he articulates for the first time in the canto devoted to Limbo, Inferno 4 (52-53), and again in confronting the devils at the gate of Dis (Inf. 8.124-26). That was the moment when, newly arrived in the first circle—“Io era nuovo in questo stato, / quando ci vidi venire un possente” (I was new-entered on this state / when I beheld a Great Lord enter here [Inf. 4.52-53])—Virgilio first realized that some of Limbo’s residents would be liberated to a different and higher reality: one that is not accessible to him.

The unfolding theme of Virgilio’s melancholy, with its most poignant expressions in Purgatorio, is rooted in the moment of realization constituted by Christ’s Harrowing of Hell, a moment first referenced in Inferno 4.52-53. That first moment of realization is supplemented as Virgilio comes to understand the scope of Christ’s act of liberation, reflected in the fact that there were not only Biblical righteous among the souls He saved. There were also virtuous pagans, as first discussed in the Introduction to Inferno 4.

Virgilio now explains the quake in terms of the Empedoclean doctrine whereby order depends on the discord of the elements, and chaos would result from their concord. At the moment of the quake, Virgilio says, he believed that the universe “felt love”:  “’i’ pensai che l’universo / sentisse amor” (I thought the universe / felt love [Inf. 12.41-42]). Although Virgilio is technically wrong in ascribing the earth’s tremor to the concord of the elements, in saying that the universe “felt love” he has in fact intuited the correct cause of the quake: the universe felt love in that it felt the arrival of Christ.

Beginning in Inferno 12.46, the travelers see what lies before them in the first ring of the circle of violence. Dante tells us of a river of blood, Phlegethon, in which are immersed and boiled the sinners who committed violence against their neighbors, those who “did harm to others through violence”: “qual che per violenza in altrui noccia” (Inf. 12.48). The degree of the shades’ immersion in the boiling blood is determined by the degree of violence that they committed. 

The narrator interrupts with an impassioned apostrophe to the “blind cupidity and insane anger” that drive humans, causing us to spend eternity in a river of blood: “Oh cieca cupidigia e ira folle” (Inf. 12.49). Here again we see, as discussed in the Introduction to Inferno 6, the distinction between the underlying vice and the specific action or sin.

The sinners punished in the first ring of the circle of violence committed sins of violence against others. These sins took the form of actions such as murder and robbery. The sin is the precise violent action that the sinner committed: the act of murder, the act of robbery. The vice is the underlying motivator to that action—be it anger, be it greed, or be it another of the seven deadly vices.

As always in human behavior, the underlying vices that spur a soul to sin are various and complex. Here the narrator’s apostrophe to “blind cupidity and insane anger”—“cieca cupidigia e ira folle” (Inf. 12.49)—indicts not only the most obvious vice leading to violence, namely anger (“ira folle”), but also cupidity or greed (“cieca cupidigia”). We remember that the most fearsome obstacle to the pilgrim’s aborted ascent in Inferno 1 is the lupa that represents cupidigia.

***

The theme of classical antiquity continues. The travelers meet a group of Centaurs, creatures from classical mythology famed for their violent tempers, but also for their better traits: the tutor of Achilles was the centaur Chiron (Inf. 12.71), who is here the leader of the troop. Chiron greets the travelers. He has realized that Dante is alive, because he sees that Dante’s feet move what he touches, unlike the feet of the dead:

                 Siete voi accorti
che quel di retro move ciò ch’el tocca?
Così non soglion far li piè d’i morti.   (Inf. 12.80-82)

                 Have you noticed
how he who walks behind moves what he touches?
Dead soles are not accustomed to do that.   

Since Dante’s feet are substantial (in the etymological sense of the word) and real, they move rocks. Possessing substantial and rock-moving feet, it follows that Dante is alive and is unable to fly through the air in a virtual body, like the shades. Virgilio explains to Chiron that Dante will need to be carried over the boiling blood and asks for an escort who will lead them to a ford and who will transport the living traveler over the river:

danne un de’ tuoi, a cui noi siamo a provo,
e che ne mostri là dove si guada
e che porti costui in su la groppa,
ché non è spirto che per l’aere vada.  (Inf. 12.93-96)
give us one of your band, to serve as companion;
and let him show us where to ford the ditch,
and let him bear this man upon his back,
for he’s no spirit who can fly through air.

Hence Chiron delegates Nessus to guide the travelers to the ford and to carry the pilgrim over the river. This is the first occasion in which one of the infernal guardians is assigned to serve as a local guide for the travelers.

From verse 96, “ché non è spirto che per l’aere vada”—“for he’s no spirit who can fly through air”—we can infer that the dead are able to move through air. We have already learned, in Inferno 6, that the virtual bodies of the dead are insubstantial, “empty images that seem like persons”: “lor vanità che par persona” (Inf. 6.36). The description of Inferno 6 accords well with the information offered here regarding the ability of dead souls to navigate through the medium of air—“per l’aere” (Inf. 12.96).

Later in Hell the pilgrim will encounter a sinner whose body is described as though substantial: Dante pulls on the hair of the traitor Bocca degli Abati in Inferno 33. But in this instance Dante is functioning as a deliverer of infernal torment, and his ability to touch Bocca must be categorized as analogous to the ability of the devils to throw the barrator Ciampolo back into the pitch or to wound the schismatics. When, on the other hand, Dante tries to embrace his friend Casella in Purgatorio 2, Casella’s body is an insubstantial image that cannot be embraced.

Virgilio also offers Chiron a concise and important description of the journey and of its principal protagonists: they are himself, Beatrice, and Dante. He was appointed the task of guiding the voyager, he explains, on a journey that is no pleasure trip: “mostrar li mi convien la valle buia / necessità ’l ci ’nduce, e non diletto” (it falls to me to show him the dark valley. / Necessity has brought him here, not pleasure [Inf. 12.85-86]). Necessity has brought them here, and Virgilio is performing an “officio” that was commissioned by Beatrice, described as one who departed from “singing alleluia” in order to give him his novel assignment: “Tal si partì da cantare alleluia / che mi commise quest officio novo” (For she who gave me this new task was one / who had just come from singing halleluiah [Inf. 12.88-89]).

Nessus will eventually conduct the travelers to a place where they can ford the boiling blood and will carry the pilgrim across the river Phlegethon on his back. The request for such assistance is given by Virgilio in verses 94-96, cited above, but the actual activity of fording the river is not narrated. It occurs after Inferno 12 has ended and before Inferno 13 begins, and is confirmed retrospectively in the first verse of Inferno 13. As Inferno 13 opens, we learn that Dante has commenced to observe his surroundings in the second ring of the seventh circle even before Nessus has reforded the river and returned to the first ring: “Non era ancor di là Nesso arrivato” (Nessus had not yet reached the other bank [Inf. 13.1]).

* * *

As they proceed along the shore of Phlegethon with Chiron and the other Centaurs, the travelers learn that the violent souls are immersed in the boiling blood in a graduated fashion, according to the gravity of their sins.

The sinners boiled in Phlegethon include both the violent against others in their persons and the violent against others in their possessions. The gravest sinners in this ring are the tyrants (“tiranni” in verse 104), despotic rulers who committed violence against their subjects both in their persons (by killing them) and in their possessions (by plundering their goods). The tiranni are therefore indicted on both counts and are immersed in blood up to their brows (Inf. 12.103-4). They both murdered and plundered, and hence are the worst offenders in the category of violence against others: “«E’ son tiranni / che dier nel sangue e ne l’aver di piglio” (These are the tyrants / who plunged their hands in blood and plundering [Inf. 12.104-5]).

It is worth noting that in his late political treatise Monarchia Dante makes synthetic but telling reference to the category of tyrants. Using the Latin version of the Italian “tiranni” (a term that by the time he composed Monarchia Dante had already used not only in Inferno 12 but also in Inferno 27 and 28, as we shall see below), he defines tyrants as a group. Tyrants do not observe “publica iura” (public laws); they are pitted against the common welfare (“comunem utilitatem”) and seek only private gain (“ad propriam”):

si vero industria, non aliter cum sic errantibus est agendum, quam cum tyrampnis, qui publica iura non ad comunem utilitatem secuntur, sed ad propriam retorquere conantur. (Mon. 3.4.10)

but if such things are done deliberately, those who make this mistake should be treated no differently from tyrants who do not observe public rights for the common welfare, but seek to turn them to their own advantage.

The tyrants immersed in Phlegethon and viewed in the first ring of the circle of violence are both classical (Alexander and Dionysius in verse 107) and contemporary: the “Azzolino” of verse 110 is Ezzelino III da Romano, lord of the Marca Trevigiana (died 1259), while “Opizzo da Esti” in verse 111 is Obizzo II d’Este, lord of Ferrara (died 1293). The ravages of Ezzelino da Romano are reprised in Paradiso 9, where his sister Cunizza da Romano identifies herself as coming from that hill whence descended a firebrand who destroyed the surrounding country: “là onde scese già una facella / che fece a la contrada un grande assalto” (from which a firebrand descended, / and it brought much injury to all the land about [Par. 9.29-30]).

The terms “tiranni” (104) and “tirannia” (132) initiate an ongoing Dantean political analysis of a form of governance then emerging in Italy: lordship, despotic rule concentrated in the hands of one lord and his family.

For Dante tirannia is a key element of his assessment of the political ills that plague the Italian peninsula. Dante uses the term tirannia again in Inferno 27, in order to describe the form of governance that has taken shape in the city-states of Romagna. Queried about the state of things in Romagna, the pilgrim replies with a resume of all the nascent despotisms that have taken root throughout the region, noting only of Cesena that it hovers still “between tyranny and freedom”: “tra tirannia si vive e stato franco” (Inf. 27.54).

In his book Italy in the Age of Dante and Petrarch (1216–1380), historian John Larner describes the steps by which the communes fell into the hands of despots and how the rule of the despot (tiranno) ultimately was legalized, with the result that the tirannie became signorie (see especially Chapter 7, “Party-leaders and signori”). In other words, following Larner, the later signorie are legalized tirannie. Given that “the formalization of lord­ship in the legal institutions of the towns” occurred in Romagna mainly after Dante’s death (see Larner, p. 139), Dante was on sound footing in considering the towns of Romagna to be tirannie rather than signorie.

As noted above, Dante will come back to the question of contemporary tirannia in Inferno 27, a canto that begins with a drawn-out simile based on the gruesome instrument of torture used on his victims by the classical tyrant Phalaris of Sicily. The coordination of the ancient Phalaris with contemporary tyrants in Inferno 27 recalls the pairing of classical and contemporary tiranni in Phlegethon in Inferno 12. Noteworthy too in this context is the reference to Phalaris as an example of bestiality in Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics 7.5. Given the importance of bestiality in the framing of this ring, whose Minotaur-guardian flaunts “ira bestial” or “bestial rage” (Inf. 12.33), Phalaris seems an excellent candidate to be plunged in Phlegethon.

In Inferno 27, Dante moves from the classical tyrant Phalaris to a roll-call of the contemporary tiranni of the Romagna region. In canto 27’s resume of despots Dante mentions both the Polenta family of Ravenna (into which Francesca da Polenta of Inferno 5, better known as Francesca da Rimini, was born) and the Malatesta family of Rimini (into which Francesca da Polenta was married, becoming the wife of Gianciotto Malatesta). Special attention is given to the Malatesta dynasty. In Inferno 27’s catalogue of Romagnol tyrants Malatesta da Verucchio and his eldest son Malatestino, the first and second lords of Rimini, are mastiffs who “make an auger of their teeth” (48), who use their teeth, in other words, to pierce their subjects’ flesh as a tool with a screw point might bore through wood:

E ’l mastin vecchio e ’l nuovo da Verrucchio,
che fecer di Montagna il mal governo,
là dove soglion fan d’i denti succhio. (Inf. 27.46-48)

Both mastiffs of Verrucchio, old and new, 
who dealt so badly with Montagna, use 
thier teeth to bore where they have always gnawed.

While in Inferno 27 the Malatesta are one of a group of castigated tiranni, in Inferno 28 Dante isolates the clan, describing at length one of Malatestino’s political murders achieved through the typical Romagnol method: betrayal.

Based on Dante’s comments in Inferno 28, Malatestino is another plausible candidate for submersion in Phlegethon.

Malatestino became lord of Rimini after the death of his father, Malatesta da Verucchio, the founder of Malatesta rule in Rimini. In Inferno 28, Malatestino is called a “tiranno fello” or “foul tyrant” (Inf. 28.81), an indictment that Dante backs up by reference to a particularly heinous crime. Malatestino is guilty of having treacherously invited to parley the two noblest citizens of Fano and then having them foully tortured and murdered:

gittati saran fuor di lor vasello
e mazzerati presso a la Cattolica
per tradimento d’un tiranno fello. (Inf. 28.79-81)

they will be cast out of their ship and drowned,
weighed down with stones, near La Cattolica,
because of a foul tyrant’s treachery.

The noble citizens of Fano Guido del Cassero and Angiolello da Carignana were “mazzerati” (Inf. 28.80)—tied in a sack, thrown overboard, and drowned. For mazzerare, see the discussion of contemporary forms of torture in the Introduction to Inferno 27.

Dante’s meditation on tirannia in the Commedia merits greater consideration, as I suggest in the essay “Only Historicize: History, Material Culture (Food, Clothes, Books), and the Future of Dante Studies”:

Dante’s meditation on tirannia may be gleaned even from a glance at his use of the words tirannia and tiranno/tiranni in the Commedia, words that are concentrated in Inferno 12 and 27 (the ‘‘tiranno fello’’ of Inf.
28.81, a reference to Malatestino Malatesta, takes us back to the Malatesta family of Inferno 5 and 27). The reconstruction of this meditation through an investigation of these passages and especially of the families to which Dante alludes would be a most worthwhile project. (“Only Historicize,” p. 49)

The travelers see many shades in the river: the souls of murderers and violent brigands as well as tyrants. There is no encounter between the pilgrim and these souls, who are merely named by Chiron and viewed by the travelers. After pointing to perhaps history’s quintessential and most infamous tyrant, Attila (ruler of the Huns from 434 CE until his death in March 453 CE), called here with the traditional label “scourge of the earth” (“flagello in terra” [Inf. 12.134]), Chiron concludes his resume with the two contemporary highway robbers Rinier da Corneto and Rinier Pazzo (Inf. 12.137). He then turns away from the travelers and goes back across the ford, leaving Nessus to carry the pilgrim across Phlegethon to the second ring of the circle of violence.

Coordinated Reading

Dante’s Poets, pp. 208-9; “Dante and Francesca da Rimini: Realpolitik, Romance, Gender,” 2000, rpt. Dante and the Origins of Italian Literary Culture, pp. 304-32; “Only Historicize: History, Material Culture (Food, Clothes, Books), and the Future of Dante Studies,” Dante Studies, 127 (2009): 37-54, esp. pp. 48-49; John Larner, Italy in the Age of Dante and Petrarch (1216–1380) (London and New York: Longman, 1980), esp. Chapter 7.

Recommended Citation

Barolini, Teodolinda. “Inferno 12: Tirannia.” Commento Baroliniano, Digital Dante. New York, NY: Columbia University Libraries, 2017. https://digitaldante.columbia.edu/dante/divine-comedy/inferno/inferno-12/

About the Commento

1 Era lo loco ov’ a scender la riva
2 venimmo, alpestro e, per quel che v’er’ anco,
3 tal, ch’ogne vista ne sarebbe schiva.

4 Qual è quella ruina che nel fianco
5 di qua da Trento l’Adice percosse,
6 o per tremoto o per sostegno manco,

7 che da cima del monte, onde si mosse,
8 al piano è sì la roccia discoscesa,
9 ch’alcuna via darebbe a chi sù fosse:

10 cotal di quel burrato era la scesa;
11 e ’n su la punta de la rotta lacca
12 l’infamïa di Creti era distesa

13 che fu concetta ne la falsa vacca;
14 e quando vide noi, sé stesso morse,
15 sì come quei cui l’ira dentro fiacca.

16 Lo savio mio inver’ lui gridò: «Forse
17 tu credi che qui sia ’l duca d’Atene,
18 che sù nel mondo la morte ti porse?

19 Pàrtiti, bestia, ché questi non vene
20 ammaestrato da la tua sorella,
21 ma vassi per veder le vostre pene».

22 Qual è quel toro che si slaccia in quella
23 c’ha ricevuto già ’l colpo mortale,
24 che gir non sa, ma qua e là saltella,

25 vid’io lo Minotauro far cotale;
26 e quello accorto gridò; «Corri al varco:
27 mentre ch’e’ ’nfuria, è buon che tu ti cale».

28 Così prendemmo via giù per lo scarco
29 di quelle pietre, che spesso moviensi
30 sotto i miei piedi per lo novo carco.

31 Io gia pensando; e quei disse: «Tu pensi
32 forse a questa ruina, ch’è guardata
33 da quell’ ira bestial ch’i’ ora spensi.

34 Or vo’ che sappi che l’altra fïata
35 ch’i’ discesi qua giù nel basso inferno,
36 questa roccia non era ancor cascata.

37 Ma certo poco pria, se ben discerno,
38 che venisse colui che la gran preda
39 levò a Dite del cerchio superno,

40 da tutte parti l’alta valle feda
41 tremò sì, ch’i’ pensai che l’universo
42 sentisse amor, per lo qual è chi creda

43 più volte il mondo in caòsso converso;
44 e in quel punto questa vecchia roccia
45 qui e altrove, tal fece riverso.

46 Ma ficca li occhi a valle, ché s’approccia
47 la riviera del sangue in la qual bolle
48 qual che per vïolenza in altrui noccia».

49 Oh cieca cupidigia e ira folle,
50 che sì ci sproni ne la vita corta,
51 e ne l’etterna poi sì mal c’immolle!

52 Io vidi un’ampia fossa in arco torta,
53 come quella che tutto ’l piano abbraccia,
54 secondo ch’avea detto la mia scorta;

55 e tra ’l piè de la ripa ed essa, in traccia
56 corrien centauri, armati di saette,
57 come solien nel mondo andare a caccia.

58 Veggendoci calar, ciascun ristette,
59 e de la schiera tre si dipartiro
60 con archi e asticciuole prima elette;

61 e l’un gridò da lungi: «A qual martiro
62 venite voi che scendete la costa?
63 Ditel costinci; se non, l’arco tiro».

64 Lo mio maestro disse: «La risposta
65 farem noi a Chirón costà di presso:
66 mal fu la voglia tua sempre sì tosta».

67 Poi mi tentò, e disse: «Quelli è Nesso,
68 che morì per la bella Deianira
69 e fé di sé la vendetta elli stesso.

70 E quel di mezzo, ch’al petto si mira,
71 è il gran Chirón, il qual nodrì Achille;
72 quell’ altro è Folo, che fu sì pien d’ira.

73 Dintorno al fosso vanno a mille a mille,
74 saettando qual anima si svelle
75 del sangue più che sua colpa sortille».

76 Noi ci appressammo a quelle fiere isnelle:
77 Chirón prese uno strale, e con la cocca
78 fece la barba in dietro a le mascelle.

79 Quando s’ebbe scoperta la gran bocca,
80 disse a’ compagni: «Siete voi accorti
81 che quel di retro move ciò ch’el tocca?

82 Così non soglion far li piè d’i morti».
83 E ’l mio buon duca, che già li er’ al petto,
84 dove le due nature son consorti,

85 rispuose: «Ben è vivo, e sì soletto
86 mostrar li mi convien la valle buia;
87 necessità ’l ci ’nduce, e non diletto.

88 Tal si partì da cantare alleluia
89 che mi commise quest’ officio novo:
90 non è ladron, né io anima fuia.

91 Ma per quella virtù per cu’ io movo
92 li passi miei per sì selvaggia strada,
93 danne un de’ tuoi, a cui noi siamo a provo,

94 e che ne mostri là dove si guada
95 e che porti costui in su la groppa,
96 ché non è spirto che per l’aere vada».

97 Chirón si volse in su la destra poppa,
98 e disse a Nesso: «Torna, e sì li guida,
99 e fa cansar s’altra schiera v’intoppa».

100 Or ci movemmo con la scorta fida
101 lungo la proda del bollor vermiglio,
102 dove i bolliti facieno alte strida.

103 Io vidi gente sotto infino al ciglio;
104 e ’l gran centauro disse: «E’ son tiranni
105 che dier nel sangue e ne l’aver di piglio.

106 Quivi si piangon li spietati danni;
107 quivi è Alessandro, e Dionisio fero,
108 che fé Cicilia aver dolorosi anni.

109 E quella fronte c’ha ’l pel così nero,
110 è Azzolino; e quell’ altro ch’è biondo,
111 è Opizzo da Esti, il qual per vero

112 fu spento dal figliastro sù nel mondo».
113 Allor mi volsi al poeta, e quei disse:
114 «Questi ti sia or primo, e io secondo».

115 Poco più oltre il centauro s’affisse
116 sovr’ una gente che ’nfino a la gola
117 parea che di quel bulicame uscisse.

118 Mostrocci un’ombra da l’un canto sola,
119 dicendo: «Colui fesse in grembo a Dio
120 lo cor che ’n su Tamisi ancor si cola».

121 Poi vidi gente che di fuor del rio
122 tenean la testa e ancor tutto ’l casso;
123 e di costoro assai riconobb’ io.

124 Così a più a più si facea basso
125 quel sangue, sì che cocea pur li piedi;
126 e quindi fu del fosso il nostro passo.

127 «Sì come tu da questa parte vedi
128 lo bulicame che sempre si scema»,
129 disse ’l centauro, «voglio che tu credi

130 che da quest’ altra a più a più giù prema
131 lo fondo suo, infin ch’el si raggiunge
132 ove la tirannia convien che gema.

133 La divina giustizia di qua punge
134 quell’ Attila che fu flagello in terra,
135 e Pirro e Sesto; e in etterno munge

136 le lagrime, che col bollor diserra,
137 a Rinier da Corneto, a Rinier Pazzo,
138 che fecero a le strade tanta guerra».

139 Poi si rivolse e ripassossi ’l guazzo.

The place that we had reached for our descent
along the bank was alpine; what reclined
upon that bank would, too, repel all eyes.

Just like the toppled mass of rock that struck—
because of earthquake or eroded props—
the Adige on its flank, this side of Trent,

where from the mountain top from which it thrust
down to the plain, the rock is shattered so
that it permits a path for those above:

such was the passage down to that ravine.
And at the edge above the cracked abyss,
there lay outstretched the infamy of Crete,

conceived within the counterfeited cow;
and, catching sight of us, he bit himself
like one whom fury devastates within.

Turning to him, my sage cried out: “Perhaps
you think this is the Duke of Athens here,
who, in the world above, brought you your death.

Be off, you beast; this man who comes has not
been tutored by your sister; all he wants
in coming here is to observe your torments.”

Just as the bull that breaks loose from its halter
the moment it receives the fatal stroke,
and cannot run but plunges back and forth,

so did I see the Minotaur respond;
and my alert guide cried: “Run toward the pass;
it’s better to descend while he’s berserk.”

And so we made our way across that heap
of stones, which often moved beneath my feet
because my weight was somewhat strange for them.

While climbing down, I thought. He said: “You wonder,
perhaps, about that fallen mass, watched over
by the inhuman rage I have just quenched.

Now I would have you know: the other time
that I descended into lower Hell,
this mass of boulders had not yet collapsed;

but if I reason rightly, it was just
before the coming of the One who took
from Dis the highest circle’s splendid spoils

that, on all sides, the steep and filthy valley
had trembled so, I thought the universe
felt love (by which, as some believe, the world

has often been converted into chaos);
and at that moment, here as well as elsewhere,
these ancient boulders toppled, in this way.

But fix your eyes below, upon the valley,
for now we near the stream of blood, where those
who injure others violently, boil.”

O blind cupidity and insane anger,
which goad us on so much in our short life,
then steep us in such grief eternally!

I saw a broad ditch bent into an arc
so that it could embrace all of that plain,
precisely as my guide had said before;

between it and the base of the embankment
raced files of Centaurs who were armed with arrows,
as, in the world above, they used to hunt.

On seeing us descend, they all reined in;
and, after they had chosen bows and shafts,
three of their number moved out from their ranks;

and still far off, one cried: “What punishment
do you approach as you descend the slope?
But speak from there; if not, I draw my bow.”

My master told him: “We shall make reply
only to Chiron, when we reach his side;
your hasty will has never served you well.”

Then he nudged me and said: “That one is Nessus,
who died because of lovely Deianira
and of himself wrought vengeance for himself.

And in the middle, gazing at his chest,
is mighty Chiron, tutor of Achilles;
the third is Pholus, he who was so frenzied.

And many thousands wheel around the moat,
their arrows aimed at any soul that thrusts
above the blood more than its guilt allots.”

By now we had drawn near those agile beasts;
Chiron drew out an arrow; with the notch,
he parted his beard back upon his jaws.

When he’d uncovered his enormous mouth,
he said to his companions: “Have you noticed
how he who walks behind moves what he touches?

Dead soles are not accustomed to do that.”
And my good guide—now near the Centaur’s chest,
the place where his two natures met—replied:

“He is indeed alive, and so alone
it falls to me to show him the dark valley.
Necessity has brought him here, not pleasure.

For she who gave me this new task was one
who had just come from singing halleluiah:
he is no robber; I am not a thief.

But by the Power that permits my steps
to journey on so wild a path, give us
one of your band, to serve as our companion;

and let him show us where to ford the ditch,
and let him bear this man upon his back,
for he’s no spirit who can fly through air.”

Then Chiron wheeled about and right and said
to Nessus: “Then, return and be their guide;
if other troops disturb you, fend them off.”

Now, with our faithful escort, we advanced
along the bloodred, boiling ditch’s banks,
beside the piercing cries of those who boiled.

I saw some who were sunk up to their brows,
and that huge Centaur said: “These are the tyrants
who plunged their hands in blood and plundering.

Here they lament their ruthless crimes; here are
both Alexander and the fierce Dionysius,
who brought such years of grief to Sicily.

That brow with hair so black is Ezzelino;
that other there, the blonde one, is Obizzo
of Este, he who was indeed undone,

within the world above, by his fierce son.”
Then I turned to the poet, and he said:
“Now let him be your first guide, me your second.”

A little farther on, the Centaur stopped
above a group that seemed to rise above
the boiling blood as far up as their throats.

He pointed out one shade, alone, apart,
and said: “Within God’s bosom, he impaled
the heart that still drips blood upon the Thames.”

Then I caught sight of some who kept their heads
and even their full chests above the tide;
among them—many whom I recognized.

And so the blood grew always shallower
until it only scorched the feet; and here
we found a place where we could ford the ditch.

“Just as you see that, on this side, the brook
continually thins,” the Centaur said,
“so I should have you know the rivulet,

along the other side, will slowly deepen
its bed, until it reaches once again
the depth where tyranny must make lament.

And there divine justice torments Attila
he who was such a scourge upon the earth,
and Pyrrhus, Sextus; to eternity

it milks the tears that boiling brook unlocks
from Rinier of Corneto, Rinier Pazzo,
those two who waged such war upon the highroads.”

Then he turned round and crossed the ford again.

THE place where to descend the bank we came
Was alpine, and from what was there, moreover,
Of such a kind that every eye would shun it.

Such as that ruin is which in the flank
Smote, on this side of Trent, the Adige,
Either by earthquake or by failing stay,

For from the mountain’s top, from which it moved,
Unto the plain the cliff is shattered so,
Some path ‘twould give to him who was above;

Even such was the descent of that ravine,
And on the border of the broken chasm
The infamy of Crete was stretched along,

Who was conceived in the fictitious cow;
And when he us beheld, he bit himself,
Even as one whom anger racks within.

My Sage towards him shoutedw: “Peradventure
Thou think’st that here may be the Duke of Athens,
Who in the world above brought death to thee ?

Get thee gone, beast, for this one cometh not
Instructed by thy sister, but he comes
In order to behold your punishments.”

As is that bull who breaks loose at the moment
In which he has received the mortal blow,
Who cannot walk, but staggers here and there,

The Minotaur beheld I do the like;
And he, the wary, cried: “Run to the passage;
While he wroth, ’tis well thou shouldst descend.”

Thus down we took our way o’er that discharge
Of stones, which oftentimes did move themselves
Beneath my feet, from the unwonted burden.

Thoughtful I went ; and he said: “Thou art thinking
Perhaps upon this ruin, which is guarded
By that brute anger which just now I quenched.

Now will I have thee know, the other time
I here descended to the nether Hell,
This precipice had not yet fallen down.

But truly, if I well discern, a little
Before His coming who the mighty spoil
Bore off from Dis, in the supernal circle,

Upon all sides the deep and loathsome valley
Trembled so, that I thought the Universe
Was thrilled with love, by which there are who think

The world ofttimes converted into chaos;
And at that moment this primeval crag
Both here and elsewhere made such overthrow.

But fix thine eyes below; for draweth near
The river of blood, within which boiling is
Whoe’er by violence doth injure others.”

O blind cupidity, O wrath insane,
That spurs us onward so in our short life,
And in the eternal then so badly steeps us !

I saw an ample moat bent like a bow,
As one which all the plain encompasses,
Conformable to what my Guide had said.

And between this and the embankment’s foot
Centaurs in file were running, armed with arrows,
As in the world they used the chase to follow.

Beholding us descend, each one stood still,
And from the squadron three detached themselves,
With bows and arrows in advance selected;

And from afar one cried: “Unto what torment
Come ye, who down the hillside are descending ?
Tell us from there; if not, I draw the bow.”

My Master said: “Our answer will we make
To Chiron, near you there; in evil hour,
That will of thine was evermore so hasty.”

Then touched he me, and said: “This one is Nessus,
Who perished for the lovely Dejanira,
And for himself, himself did vengeance take.

And he in the midst, who at his breast is gazing,
Is the great Chiron, who brought up Achilles;
That other Pholus is, who was so wrathful.

Thousands and thousands go about the moat
Shooting with shafts whatever soul emerges
Out of the blood, more than his crime allots.”

Near we approached unto those monsters fleet;
Chiron an arrow took, and with the notch
Backward upon his jaws he put his beard.

After he had uncovered his great mouth,
He said to his companions: “Are you ware
That he behind moveth whate’er he touches ?

Thus are not wont to do the feet of dead men.”
And my good Guide, who now was at his breast,
Where the two natures are together joined,

Replied: “Indeed he lives, and thus alone
Me it behoves to show him the dark valley;
Necessity, and not delight, impels us.

Some one withdrew from singing Halleluja,
Who unto me committed this new office;
No thief is he, nor I a thievish spirit.

But by that virtue through which I am moving
My steps along this savage thoroughfare,
Give us some one of thine, to be with us,

And who may show us where to pass the ford,
And who may carry this one on his back;
For ’tis no spirit that can walk the air.”

Upon his right breast Chiron wheeled about,
And said to Nessus: “Turn and do thou guide them,
And warn aside, if other band may meet you.”

We with our faithful escort onward moved
Along the brink of the vermilion boiling,
Wherein the boiled were uttering loud laments.

People I saw within up to the eyebrows,
And the great Centaur said: “Tyrants are these,
Who dealt in bloodshed and in pillaging.

Here they lament their pitiless mischiefs; here
Is Alexander, and fierce Dionysius
Who upon Sicily brought dolorous years.

That forehead there which has the hair so black
Is Azzolin; and the other who is blond,
Obizzo is of Esti, who, in truth,

Up in the world was by his stepson slain.”
Then turned I to the Poet; and he said,
“Now he be first to thee, and second I.”

A little farther on the Centaur stopped
Above a folk, who far down as the throat
Seemed from that boiling stream to issue forth.

A shade’ he showed us on one side alone,
Saying: “He cleft asunder in God’s bosom
The heart that still upon the Thames is honoured.”

Then people saw I, who from out the river
Lifted their heads and also all the chest;
And many among these I recognised.

Thus ever more and more grew shallower
That blood, so that the feet alone it covered;
And there across the moat our passage was.

“Even as thou here upon this side beholdest
The boiling stream, that aye diminishes,”
The Centaur said,”I wish thee to believe

That on this other more and more declines
Its bed, until it reunites itself
Where it behoveth tyranny to groan.

Justice divine, upon this side, is goading
That Attila, who was a scourge on earth,
And Pyrrhus, and Sextus; and for ever milks

The tears which with the boiling it unseals
In Rinier da Corneto and Rinier Pazzo,
Who made upon the highways so much war.”

Then back he turned, and passed again the ford.

The place that we had reached for our descent
along the bank was alpine; what reclined
upon that bank would, too, repel all eyes.

Just like the toppled mass of rock that struck—
because of earthquake or eroded props—
the Adige on its flank, this side of Trent,

where from the mountain top from which it thrust
down to the plain, the rock is shattered so
that it permits a path for those above:

such was the passage down to that ravine.
And at the edge above the cracked abyss,
there lay outstretched the infamy of Crete,

conceived within the counterfeited cow;
and, catching sight of us, he bit himself
like one whom fury devastates within.

Turning to him, my sage cried out: “Perhaps
you think this is the Duke of Athens here,
who, in the world above, brought you your death.

Be off, you beast; this man who comes has not
been tutored by your sister; all he wants
in coming here is to observe your torments.”

Just as the bull that breaks loose from its halter
the moment it receives the fatal stroke,
and cannot run but plunges back and forth,

so did I see the Minotaur respond;
and my alert guide cried: “Run toward the pass;
it’s better to descend while he’s berserk.”

And so we made our way across that heap
of stones, which often moved beneath my feet
because my weight was somewhat strange for them.

While climbing down, I thought. He said: “You wonder,
perhaps, about that fallen mass, watched over
by the inhuman rage I have just quenched.

Now I would have you know: the other time
that I descended into lower Hell,
this mass of boulders had not yet collapsed;

but if I reason rightly, it was just
before the coming of the One who took
from Dis the highest circle’s splendid spoils

that, on all sides, the steep and filthy valley
had trembled so, I thought the universe
felt love (by which, as some believe, the world

has often been converted into chaos);
and at that moment, here as well as elsewhere,
these ancient boulders toppled, in this way.

But fix your eyes below, upon the valley,
for now we near the stream of blood, where those
who injure others violently, boil.”

O blind cupidity and insane anger,
which goad us on so much in our short life,
then steep us in such grief eternally!

I saw a broad ditch bent into an arc
so that it could embrace all of that plain,
precisely as my guide had said before;

between it and the base of the embankment
raced files of Centaurs who were armed with arrows,
as, in the world above, they used to hunt.

On seeing us descend, they all reined in;
and, after they had chosen bows and shafts,
three of their number moved out from their ranks;

and still far off, one cried: “What punishment
do you approach as you descend the slope?
But speak from there; if not, I draw my bow.”

My master told him: “We shall make reply
only to Chiron, when we reach his side;
your hasty will has never served you well.”

Then he nudged me and said: “That one is Nessus,
who died because of lovely Deianira
and of himself wrought vengeance for himself.

And in the middle, gazing at his chest,
is mighty Chiron, tutor of Achilles;
the third is Pholus, he who was so frenzied.

And many thousands wheel around the moat,
their arrows aimed at any soul that thrusts
above the blood more than its guilt allots.”

By now we had drawn near those agile beasts;
Chiron drew out an arrow; with the notch,
he parted his beard back upon his jaws.

When he’d uncovered his enormous mouth,
he said to his companions: “Have you noticed
how he who walks behind moves what he touches?

Dead soles are not accustomed to do that.”
And my good guide—now near the Centaur’s chest,
the place where his two natures met—replied:

“He is indeed alive, and so alone
it falls to me to show him the dark valley.
Necessity has brought him here, not pleasure.

For she who gave me this new task was one
who had just come from singing halleluiah:
he is no robber; I am not a thief.

But by the Power that permits my steps
to journey on so wild a path, give us
one of your band, to serve as our companion;

and let him show us where to ford the ditch,
and let him bear this man upon his back,
for he’s no spirit who can fly through air.”

Then Chiron wheeled about and right and said
to Nessus: “Then, return and be their guide;
if other troops disturb you, fend them off.”

Now, with our faithful escort, we advanced
along the bloodred, boiling ditch’s banks,
beside the piercing cries of those who boiled.

I saw some who were sunk up to their brows,
and that huge Centaur said: “These are the tyrants
who plunged their hands in blood and plundering.

Here they lament their ruthless crimes; here are
both Alexander and the fierce Dionysius,
who brought such years of grief to Sicily.

That brow with hair so black is Ezzelino;
that other there, the blonde one, is Obizzo
of Este, he who was indeed undone,

within the world above, by his fierce son.”
Then I turned to the poet, and he said:
“Now let him be your first guide, me your second.”

A little farther on, the Centaur stopped
above a group that seemed to rise above
the boiling blood as far up as their throats.

He pointed out one shade, alone, apart,
and said: “Within God’s bosom, he impaled
the heart that still drips blood upon the Thames.”

Then I caught sight of some who kept their heads
and even their full chests above the tide;
among them—many whom I recognized.

And so the blood grew always shallower
until it only scorched the feet; and here
we found a place where we could ford the ditch.

“Just as you see that, on this side, the brook
continually thins,” the Centaur said,
“so I should have you know the rivulet,

along the other side, will slowly deepen
its bed, until it reaches once again
the depth where tyranny must make lament.

And there divine justice torments Attila
he who was such a scourge upon the earth,
and Pyrrhus, Sextus; to eternity

it milks the tears that boiling brook unlocks
from Rinier of Corneto, Rinier Pazzo,
those two who waged such war upon the highroads.”

Then he turned round and crossed the ford again.

THE place where to descend the bank we came
Was alpine, and from what was there, moreover,
Of such a kind that every eye would shun it.

Such as that ruin is which in the flank
Smote, on this side of Trent, the Adige,
Either by earthquake or by failing stay,

For from the mountain’s top, from which it moved,
Unto the plain the cliff is shattered so,
Some path ‘twould give to him who was above;

Even such was the descent of that ravine,
And on the border of the broken chasm
The infamy of Crete was stretched along,

Who was conceived in the fictitious cow;
And when he us beheld, he bit himself,
Even as one whom anger racks within.

My Sage towards him shoutedw: “Peradventure
Thou think’st that here may be the Duke of Athens,
Who in the world above brought death to thee ?

Get thee gone, beast, for this one cometh not
Instructed by thy sister, but he comes
In order to behold your punishments.”

As is that bull who breaks loose at the moment
In which he has received the mortal blow,
Who cannot walk, but staggers here and there,

The Minotaur beheld I do the like;
And he, the wary, cried: “Run to the passage;
While he wroth, ’tis well thou shouldst descend.”

Thus down we took our way o’er that discharge
Of stones, which oftentimes did move themselves
Beneath my feet, from the unwonted burden.

Thoughtful I went ; and he said: “Thou art thinking
Perhaps upon this ruin, which is guarded
By that brute anger which just now I quenched.

Now will I have thee know, the other time
I here descended to the nether Hell,
This precipice had not yet fallen down.

But truly, if I well discern, a little
Before His coming who the mighty spoil
Bore off from Dis, in the supernal circle,

Upon all sides the deep and loathsome valley
Trembled so, that I thought the Universe
Was thrilled with love, by which there are who think

The world ofttimes converted into chaos;
And at that moment this primeval crag
Both here and elsewhere made such overthrow.

But fix thine eyes below; for draweth near
The river of blood, within which boiling is
Whoe’er by violence doth injure others.”

O blind cupidity, O wrath insane,
That spurs us onward so in our short life,
And in the eternal then so badly steeps us !

I saw an ample moat bent like a bow,
As one which all the plain encompasses,
Conformable to what my Guide had said.

And between this and the embankment’s foot
Centaurs in file were running, armed with arrows,
As in the world they used the chase to follow.

Beholding us descend, each one stood still,
And from the squadron three detached themselves,
With bows and arrows in advance selected;

And from afar one cried: “Unto what torment
Come ye, who down the hillside are descending ?
Tell us from there; if not, I draw the bow.”

My Master said: “Our answer will we make
To Chiron, near you there; in evil hour,
That will of thine was evermore so hasty.”

Then touched he me, and said: “This one is Nessus,
Who perished for the lovely Dejanira,
And for himself, himself did vengeance take.

And he in the midst, who at his breast is gazing,
Is the great Chiron, who brought up Achilles;
That other Pholus is, who was so wrathful.

Thousands and thousands go about the moat
Shooting with shafts whatever soul emerges
Out of the blood, more than his crime allots.”

Near we approached unto those monsters fleet;
Chiron an arrow took, and with the notch
Backward upon his jaws he put his beard.

After he had uncovered his great mouth,
He said to his companions: “Are you ware
That he behind moveth whate’er he touches ?

Thus are not wont to do the feet of dead men.”
And my good Guide, who now was at his breast,
Where the two natures are together joined,

Replied: “Indeed he lives, and thus alone
Me it behoves to show him the dark valley;
Necessity, and not delight, impels us.

Some one withdrew from singing Halleluja,
Who unto me committed this new office;
No thief is he, nor I a thievish spirit.

But by that virtue through which I am moving
My steps along this savage thoroughfare,
Give us some one of thine, to be with us,

And who may show us where to pass the ford,
And who may carry this one on his back;
For ’tis no spirit that can walk the air.”

Upon his right breast Chiron wheeled about,
And said to Nessus: “Turn and do thou guide them,
And warn aside, if other band may meet you.”

We with our faithful escort onward moved
Along the brink of the vermilion boiling,
Wherein the boiled were uttering loud laments.

People I saw within up to the eyebrows,
And the great Centaur said: “Tyrants are these,
Who dealt in bloodshed and in pillaging.

Here they lament their pitiless mischiefs; here
Is Alexander, and fierce Dionysius
Who upon Sicily brought dolorous years.

That forehead there which has the hair so black
Is Azzolin; and the other who is blond,
Obizzo is of Esti, who, in truth,

Up in the world was by his stepson slain.”
Then turned I to the Poet; and he said,
“Now he be first to thee, and second I.”

A little farther on the Centaur stopped
Above a folk, who far down as the throat
Seemed from that boiling stream to issue forth.

A shade’ he showed us on one side alone,
Saying: “He cleft asunder in God’s bosom
The heart that still upon the Thames is honoured.”

Then people saw I, who from out the river
Lifted their heads and also all the chest;
And many among these I recognised.

Thus ever more and more grew shallower
That blood, so that the feet alone it covered;
And there across the moat our passage was.

“Even as thou here upon this side beholdest
The boiling stream, that aye diminishes,”
The Centaur said,”I wish thee to believe

That on this other more and more declines
Its bed, until it reunites itself
Where it behoveth tyranny to groan.

Justice divine, upon this side, is goading
That Attila, who was a scourge on earth,
And Pyrrhus, and Sextus; and for ever milks

The tears which with the boiling it unseals
In Rinier da Corneto and Rinier Pazzo,
Who made upon the highways so much war.”

Then back he turned, and passed again the ford.